Knee pain area example

Chondroitin Sulfate Glycosaminoglyans (GAGs)

  • Joint and bone shock absorber
  • Support extracellular matrices
  • Amass water in stress areas (highly hydrophilic)
  • Pain relief
  • Vital components of cartilage

Disaccharide chains, powerful anti-aging compounds.

A sulfated glycosaminoglycan (GAG), chondroitin is a vital component of extracellular matrices (ECMs). ECMs are in every organ and tissue, they are three dimensional grouping of proteins, water, and polysaccharides. An intricate molecular network that supports surrounding cells. Chondroitin sulfate can carry biological information in its alternating disaccharide chain, i.e., galactosamine and glucuronic acid alternating [2, 3]. Chondroitin sulfate molecules are an important piece of ECM structures. 

Highly polar, GAGs attract water, also a main component of ECMs. ECMs are vital to tissues, organs, joints, bones, ligaments, and cartilage. GAGs and their strong hydrophilic properties allow matrices to amass great volumes of water, allowing areas of pressure and stress that the matrices usually reside in to sustain hefty pressures and physical stressors similar to the functions of shock absorbers [1].

Chondroitin sulfate has become a popular dietary ingredient due to its pain relieving effects in joints, bones, and areas commonly affected by osteoarthritis. Double blind, placebo controlled, clinical trials show significant pain relief in chondroitin supplementation groups relative to placebo groups [4, 5, 6]. Show moreHide Text...


  • Alberts B, Johnson A, Lewis J, et al. Molecular Biology of the Cell. 4th edition. New York: Garland Science; 2002. The Extracellular Matrix of Animals. Available from:
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  • Henrotin, Y., Mathy, M., Sanchez, C., & Lambert, C. (2010). Chondroitin sulfate in the treatment of osteoarthritis: from in vitro studies to clinical recommendations. Therapeutic advances in musculoskeletal disease, 2(6), 335-48.
  • Mazieres, Combe, Phan Van, Tondut, & Grynfeltt. (2001). Chondroitin sulfate in osteoarthritis of the knee: A prospective, double blind, placebo controlled multicenter clinical study. The Journal of Rheumatology, 28(1), 173-81.
  • Reginster J, Dudler J, Blicharski T, et al Pharmaceutical-grade Chondroitin sulfate is as effective as celecoxib and superior to placebo in symptomatic knee osteoarthritis: the ChONdroitin versus CElecoxib versus Placebo Trial (CONCEPT) Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases 2017;76:1537-1543.
  • Singh, J. A., Noorbaloochi, S., MacDonald, R., & Maxwell, L. J. (2015). Chondroitin for osteoarthritis. The Cochrane database of systematic reviews, 1, CD005614. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD005614.pub2